I recently put in my processor (A8-5500, like the title says), and tried to install a driver. AMD website said install catalyst, so I did. The issue is that Catalyst doesn't see my processor in the hardware tab, and I am experiencing driver-related issues. What can/should I do?
You have a AMD APU which means it is a processor with Integrated Graphics on it.
By your Device Manager it looks like Windows does recognize your processor without any errors.
Go to Device Manager - DISPLAY ADAPTER.
There it should show AMD GPU HD 7560D.
Your APU is not supported any more by AMD with updated drivers. So you only have two drivers to choose from: https://www.amd.com/en/support/apu/amd-series-processors/amd-a8-series-apu-for-desktops/a8-5500-rade...
If it does show HD 7560D without any errors than you have installed your AMD Driver correctly. IF it doesn't show or with errors try installing using this basic method:
Uninstall the current AMD Driver using DDU as per this method:
It could be due to a corrupted AMD Driver installation.
Download free program DDU (Display Driver Uninstaller). Run it in Safe mode with the internet disconnected.
You can also run it in Windows Desktop but then you would need to Reboot the computer for DDU to finish erasing all of the AMD Driver traces from your computer.
Once it finishes uninstalling the current AMD Driver in Safe mode and boots back to Windows Desktop, still with the Internet disconnected, delete the AMD Installation folder C:\AMD if it was created before.
Now install the full AMD Drive package you downloaded manually from AMD Download page. Not the express package. Run the package and if it installs correctly again delete C:\AMD folder and reconnect the internet.
This should prevent any conflict when installing the new version from the previous version.
By the way, C:\AMD is always created whenever you run the AMD Driver package