This appears to be a regression in the OpenGL drivers, possibly a recent one. It's the exact same issue as Crashes when using GL_ARB_bindless_texture with AMD drivers
Verified using the minimal reproduction attached in that post. Tested on both a Radeon VII and a 5700XT, driver version 20.1.1
There does appear to be some sort of weird factor that affects the overall limit at which a crash happens however. The reproduction attached in the linked post (reattached here for convenience) locks up or crashes after 460 resident textures. In my custom game engine (a bit large to provide here) it seems to be alright to have thousands of bindless buffer textures, but exactly 892 resident image handles (regardless of internal format/target/size) causes a similar crash or lock up (the Visual Studio debugger reports an AccessViolation in atio6axx.dll). This happens on any draw call/compute dispatch operation.