Have you reported this to Google thru Chrome "REPORT AN ISSUE" under "HELP"? (where the three vertical dots are located at).
This is the Official Google Chrome Forum you might post your question. Most likely they are going to say it is the GPU card or AMD driver problem. But they may direct you on how to fix it. Google Groups .
Sorry can't be of much more help. If this is a GPU card vBIOS problem, maybe you can download a newer vBIOS from GPU-Z website, if available, from here : VGA Bios Collection | TechPowerUp
Of course, you already know if you update your vBIOS you will probably void any warranties on the card plus running the risk of bricking it if something goes wrong.
I find it unlikely to be a vbios problem. I've used 3 different released bios for this card including the original it came with (currently has the latest via MSI rep) and all show the issue. If you check the threads I've linked, it happens with cards on different models and different manufactures (and different PCBs), at least on RX480 and RX580, that only rarely seem to exhibit it by switching tabs on chrome, and are stable otherwise. It would be almost impossible for them all to use a similar vbios version (early RX480s vs late RX580s).
I've reported it in here in the hope some other RX users with the same occasional issue could share hints about it. To troubleshoot it, I've underclocked core/mem, disabled pci-e power link energy management, changed slot, set pci-e slot power to max instead of default 75W, all without removing the issue. It's painful to test, because it can pass near a month before it shows again. But since it only happens under the Chrome window, it's most likely either a driver or browser problem that only seems to affect these cards.
My personal experience with reporting GPU issues to browser support is that they simply discard it to AMD/NV drivers.
Oh, another thread about this at:
Without surprise, it also occurs on RX470 and other chromium based browsers like Opera.