We have the same situation on a device using an FX-4300 Quad core, and another device that I didn't get the processor type from. The KB-4058692 updated disabled the start menu, broke printing, etc.. I have rolled back to an old restore point 2 times already, and each time that KB gets loaded the same problems occur again. The first news I saw looked promising that MS was holding back the update, then I saw another note that they started deploying again to most AMD processors. I wish they had held off on ALL AMD for now.. And - With no way to block that patch, we're stuck...
I have always had great luck with AMD.. But - I may have to switch out these couple devices for Intel based processors to get them up and running.
Any suggestions to get running again?
These problems should be posted on the Microsoft forums, as AMD does not have anything to do with Microsoft's horrible coding.
You may wish to consider switching to Linux Mint Cinnamon x64 & dropping MSFT Windows.
It is similar to using Win 7, but w/o all the MSFT problems.
Not a perfect solution, but a very good alternative.
All of my online PC's use AMD chips (Athlon Phenom II, FX, APU's) & all work fine /w Mint.
Investigate www.OSDisc.com for problem free DVDs.