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For BMW1M-MikePan file, I also observed the same compilation error with catalyst 15.7.1 using my Hawaii card. However, older blenders versions such as 2.75a, 277a worked fine on that setup. Could you please check those older blender versions?
You may check the blender community to see if any driver/hardware limitation is there for that blender version.
Please note that 5870 is a quite old card and it (including many other pre-GCN products [see Legacy ]) has been moved to a legacy support model and no additional driver releases are planned. So, I don't think you will get any further updates for that card.
Just try another driver available for that card i.e. Crimson 16.2.1 Beta, if it works for you.
P.S. The BMW1M-MikePan file worked fine using Blender 2.78a with the latest driver.
Can confirm same problem (Blender 2.78a, default settings, default cube, GPU rendering) with an R9 280 on Win 10 64bit with latest AMD drivers installed:
Device init success Compiling base_kernel OpenCL kernel ... Build flags: -D__NODES_MAX_GROUP__=3 -D__NODES_FEATURES__=15 -D__MAX_CLOSURE__=64 -D__NO_HAIR__ -D__NO_OBJECT_MOTION__ -D__NO_CAMERA_MOTION__ -D__NO_BAKING__ -D__NO_VOLUME__ -D__NO_SUBSURFACE__ -D__NO_BRANCHED_PATH__ -D__NO_PATCH_EVAL__ OpenCL kernel build output: "C:\Program Files\Blender Foundation\Blender\2.78\scripts\addons\cycles\kernel\kernels/opencl\../../kernel_projection.h", line 238: error: expression must have pointer-to-struct-or-union type float altitude = fabsf(safe_asinf(D->z)); ^ 1 error detected in the compilation of "C:\Users\Jan\AppData\Local\Temp\OCL3304T2.cl". Frontend phase failed compilation. OpenCL build failed: errors in console Build error: CL_BUILD_PROGRAM_FAILURE
Worked in Blender 2.76 and 2.77a (default cube).
Yes, it seems that the error can also be found on Tahiti cards (so R9 280 AMD Radeon Rx 200 series - Wikipedia). As mentioned, I didn't observe the error on Hawaii card. So, as I suspect, this compiler issue might be related to GCN 1.0 and lower devices. I'll report it to the concerned team.
P.S. I've whitelisted you so, now onwards you will be able to post anywhere in Devgurus.