Although the question is almost a year old, I discovered it in a Google search for glGetProgramResourceiv and thought I'd post a response in case others search and find this page. I had run into the same problem on my AMD 7970 with an earlier driver. With a call to glGetError, I got GL_INVALID_ENUM. The offending item was GL_LOCATION_COMPONENT. The same code worked on an NVIDIA card. I repeated the test now with
vendor = ATI Technologies Inc.
renderer = AMD Radeon HD 7900 Series
version = 4.4.13283 Compatibility Profile Context 14.501.1003.0
and the call succeeds with GL_LOCATION_COMPONENT. However, I get a similar error on AMD with my current driver (but not on NVIDIA) with glGetProgramInterfaceiv(handle, GL_TRANSFORM_FEEDBACK_BUFFER, GL_ACTIVE_RESOURCES, &numResource). The error is GL_INVALID_ENUM.