Similar issue here, not just Google Chrome, everything using Chromium will have same problem. Including Chromium Edge, RPG Maker MV, Whatsapp desktop application etc.
The problem of Chrome work with 5700 XT is the application will lag in operation and significantly frame drop in YouTube playback, especially in full screen. This issue will appear in most HTML5 player on Chromium.
Other issue of Chromium is color, every application related to Chromium will display wrong color in default. Google Chrome and Chromium Edge will display correct color after specify color space. While other application which is not possible to do this will remain wrong color. Those application will display in a less saturated color tone and seems messed up the grey scale. This problem annoys me since I bought the 5700 XT 50th Anniversary.
CPU: Intel Xeon E3-1230v2
MB: ASUS Z77-V Pro
Ram: 8 GB DDR3-1333 *2
VGA: 5700 XT 50th Anniversay (Driver 19.7.2)
Monitor: Dell UP2516D on DP
I think I've found the problem, in my case anyway. I'm running an LG 2560x1080 ultrawide display and after a few hours of tearing my hair out, I tried the card with a second 1080p monitor and it worked perfectly. Setting the LG to 1080p also cured the problem, so I decided to play with a custom resolution in the AMD control panel.
Leaving all other settings as they are and selecting "CVT" from the drop down menu, the problem disappeared in 2560x1080 mode. It must be a monitor or GPU driver bug that's not identifying the signal timing. Hope this helps anyone in a similar situation.